The major symptoms that may need management at the end of life are pain, anxiety, nausea, vomiting, secretions and terminal restlessness. Anderson Symptom Inventory (MDASI) developed for use with cancer patients which comprise 37% of hospice patients.
There are several symptom assessment tools available. This tool measures pain, fatigue, disturbed sleep, distress (emotional), shortness of breath, drowsiness, dry mouth, sadness, difficulty remembering, numbness or tingling, lack of appetite, nausea, and vomiting.
Regrettably, researchers have consistently demonstrated that pain control is often inadequate for those who are dying. (2016) analyzed the 2007 National home health and hospice care survey and found only 70% of patients assessed with a valid pain scale achieved improvement or freedom from pain.However, because of the serious consequences of epidural abscess and epidural haematoma, all back pain after epidural insertion must be reported to, then thoroughly assessed by CPMS staff.Moderate motor block is common immediately following surgery due to the higher doses of local anaesthetic used during surgery.These concerns and possibly those similar ones of healthcare providers need to be discussed openly.No patient should experience pain because of these issues. (2015) demonstrated the use of an intervention called EMPOWER (Effective Management of Pain: Overcoming Worries to Enable Relief).